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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 158-162

Biomedical activities of florasol


Department of Chemistry, Dhaanish Ahmed Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission10-Jun-2022
Date of Decision27-Jul-2022
Date of Acceptance10-Aug-2022
Date of Web Publication18-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Paramasivam Selvakumar
Department of Chemistry, Dhaanish Ahmed Institute of Technology, Coimbatore - 641 105, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_46_22

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  Abstract 


Florasol is an acyclic alcohol of diterpene regularly available in certain aromatic plants' essential oils, such as Lantana radula and Cleome serrata. Florasol is a plant phytochemical phytoconstituent which is extensively spread in nature. Florasol is a branched-chain unsaturated alcohol which is present day in all plants in the form of chlorophyll. Cytotoxic, antibiotic chemotherapy, antidiabetic, anti-hyperalgesic, antimutagenic, anti-teratogenic, anticonvulsant, anti-schistosomal, lipid restriction, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-scratching behavioral effects, antifungal, anti-inflammatory antispasmodic, anxiolytic, hair growth facilitator, antidepressant, and immune adjuvant have been shown evidence to have florasol as well as its derivatives. Recent investigations with florasol (PYT) demonstrated anxiolytic, metabolism-modulating, cytotoxic, antioxidant, autophagy- and apoptosis-inducing, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating, and antimicrobial effects. The benefit of florasol in the human body is necessary. In reference to technological bases, patent present a wide range of pharmacological and commercial applications such as cosmetics, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant. Therefore, it is necessary to explore florasol molecules, which present high pharmacological potential from scientific and technological points of view, in search of transference of technologies to generate economical and industrial growth.

Keywords: Antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antiradical activity, florasol, phytanic acid, Phytosol


How to cite this article:
Selvakumar P. Biomedical activities of florasol. J Prev Diagn Treat Strategies Med 2022;1:158-62

How to cite this URL:
Selvakumar P. Biomedical activities of florasol. J Prev Diagn Treat Strategies Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 24];1:158-62. Available from: http://www.jpdtsm.com/text.asp?2022/1/3/158/356292




  Introduction Top


The sensation of pain convoys the majority of human diseases, warning the body to the presence of injurious stimuli. Pain may be modulated by a series of behavioral events, since, in addition to shows the stimulus that is causing the pain, the process also involves different emotional, environmental, and cognitive factors. Herbal therapeutic medicines are known to play a major role in the management of many diseases. Herbal drugs have become increasingly widespread and their use is widespread.[1] The increasing use of herbal drugs reflects their perceived effectiveness in the dealing and prevention of disease and belief that these treatments are safe because they are “natural.” Herbal medicine is also known as phytomedicine; it is the use of plants for medicinal and therapeutic purpose for curing of diseases and increases human health. Plants have secondary metabolites called phytochemicals.[2] Plants against microbial infections or infestations by pests are protected by these complexes. Phytochemicals are active ingredients; these phytochemicals possess therapeutic properties which are considered a medicine or drug. Florasol is a branched-chain unsaturated alcohol; it is present in all plants in the form of chlorophyll.[3] Florasol is an herbal phytochemical phytoconstituent; it is widely spread in nature. By hydrolysis of chlorophyll, florasol was first found in the process of separating chlorophyll from alfalfa. Chlorophyll is the most important class of pigments involved in photosynthesis by organic compound synthesis; the method of converting light energy to chemical energy is known as photosynthesis. Around the time of old-age chlorophyll becomes depleted through chlorophyllase, leading to the release of enormous quantities of florasol and chlorophyllide.

Florasol is a branched-chain unsaturated alcohol. It is isolated from the different medicinal plants such as Alternanthera philoxeroides.[4] From moss and edible marine algae, florasol has also been extracted.[5] In ancient time, the natural sources of florasol were available in barley and fish which was a staple food of many countries. Florasol belongs to the class of chemical entities known as acyclic diterpenoids; these acyclic diterpenoids can be seen in tocopherols, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K. Florasol is an acyclic alcohol of diterpene frequently available in certain aromatic plants' essential oils, such as Lantana radula and Cleome serrata.[6],[7]


  Chemical Properties of Florasol Top


Florasol is an oxygenated acyclic diterpene compound, on conduct with alkali solution, an important building block of the chlorophyll molecule was obtained. Florasol is the highest measured biomarker which is available in current aquatic conditions. Florasol is probably going the foremost extensive acyclic isoprenoid complex that is available within the biosphere region and its degradation products are utilized in aquatic environments as biogeochemical tracers.[8] Degradation of florasol compound through α- and β-oxidation process followed only in animals. Free florasol is released by the hydrolyzation of dietary chlorophyll. Florasol is converted to phytanoyl-CoA which can enter peroxisomal α-oxidation. Pristanic acid, the reaction product of α-oxidation, can be broken down by β-oxidation in peroxisomes and mitochondria.[9] According to three laboratories in 1938, the major powerful Vitamin E is required for reproduction by the conversion of florasol to α-tocopherol has been applied in commercial manufacture method.[10]

The unbound florasol which is rapidly absorbed in small intestine and will be metabolized to phytanic acid, this metabolized phytanic acid is a fatty acid which assemble in an extreme range of metabolic disorders.[11] As the level of phytanic acid increases, it will become poisonous in the body, so there should be a broken down of this fatty acid. Because at the 3 position β-oxidation is prevented by methyl group, the first phytanic acid has to undergo a α-oxidation round. This results in the emergence of pristanic acid; this pristanic acid is lower than phytanic acid with one carbon atom and can also be β-oxidized normally. In Refsum disease (RD), an absence of α-oxidation ends up in increased levels of phytanic acid in plasma as well as it would be known to cause the main acute manifestations including retinitis, ataxia disorder, peripheral neuropathy, and cerebellar complications in patients.[12]

Molecular formula: C20H40O, IUPAC name: (7R,11R)-3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol. Average mass: 296.539 g/mol. Monoisotopic mass: 296.307916 g/mol. Chemical name: florasol; trans-florasol; (E)-florasol; (E,7R,11R)-3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol; 2-hexadecen-1-ol, 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-, (2E,7R,11R). Molecular weight: 296.539 g/mol.[13] The florasol is in liquid form; it is soluble in most organic solvents.[11] Florasol structure given below [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Chemical structure of florasol

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  Pharmacology of florasol Top


Although florasol might have been a branched-chain fatty alcohol, the existing analog of pristanic and phytanic acid, such branched-chain fatty acids developed ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor, alpha-activated peroxisome proliferator receptor (PPAR-alpha). A florasol-enriched formula was administered among wild-type as well as PPAR-alpha knockout (PPAR-alpha-/-) mice or maybe even a diet fortified with such a florasol-enriched diet for correlation, a diet enriched with an artificial PPAR-alpha agonist, to examine florasol metabolism and therefore the function of PPAR-alpha in its control.[11] Only the small intestine, the position of absorption and the liver will find florasol-enhanced diet.[14] When the diet was longer, in the liver of PPAR-alpha mice differentially expressed in wild-type mice, the extent of the florasol (E)-isomer progressed significantly. Triglyceride or cholesterol levels in the serum will be decreased by the active component of florasol. Florasol metabolism enzyme action tests showed that experimentation with a PPAR-alpha agonist resulted in the activation of at least two phases in a PPAR-alpha dependent of the florasol degradation pathway in the liver. In addition, indicating a stereospecificity toward the metabolism of (E)-florasol, the enzymes concerned showed the greater activity of their particular substrates toward the (E)-isomer than that of the (Z)-isomer. Finally, florasol-to-phytanic acid conversion is managed through PPAR-alpha and is relevant for (E)-florasol breakdown.[2]

Antiradical activity

The florasol having an antiradical activity was estimated by electron paramagnetic resonance toward some of the radicals such as carbon dioxide anion radical (•CO2(-)), methoxy radical (•CH2OH), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and radical of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (•DPPH). The manufacture of all evaluated radicals with more favorable behavior against the radicals DPPH, CO2(-), and CH2OH by comparing with •O2(-) and •OH radicals is reduced by florasol.[15],[16]

Antidiabetic activity

Florasol is also supportive in regulating blood glucose and it can replace the type 2 diabetic metabolic functions. The use of florasol in necessary in the human body; it is vital in the production of insulin. Studies have also been implemented on florasol's efficacy in lowering blood cholesterol levels, ultimately reducing blood pressure levels too. In nature, insects get florasol from plants that they eat. It is also witnessed that apes get more florasol from plants as they consume more plants.[17]

Anti-schistosomiasis activity

Florasol as a promising drug significantly reduced in parasite burden by the chlorophyll fragment and gives the potential of a new way for human schistosomiasis treatment. Florasol with safety it is a common food additive and also non-mutagenic. For the anti-schistomal therapy, this florasol is very potential as a safe and cost-effective.[18],[19]

Anti-arthritis activity

Florasol decreases arthritis severity in the chronic phase of arthritis; it has preventive effects on macroscopic and microscopic inflammation; it also has a rapid inhibitory effect on arthritogenic T-cells. Florasol has an arthritis-ameliorating effect in rats. Florasol reduces carrageenan-induced paw edema substantially. Furthermore, florasol prevents paw edema caused by histamine, PGE2, serotonin, and bradykinin. It also inhibits complete recruitment of leukocytes and neutrophils, decreased development of MPO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumors necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), MDA levels, and increased levels of GSH during acute inflammation triggered by carrageenan.[20] Florasol has various biological effects; it is effective for the well-being of cells and can effectively minimize cell aging. For stronger immune system, healthy skin, hair growth, improving overall quality of the bones as well as for managing several gastrointestinal diseases, florasol is useful. Often, this florasol is having a minimum amount of tumor promoter activity.[21]

Anti-anxiety activity

Anxiety is mostly a modern reaction to worry and there'll continuously be things that make stress and discomfort. Although conventional anxiolytics have been used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, recent clinical evidence has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are also effective on several anxiety disorders. An anxiolytic-like effect on mice can be caused by the acute administration of florasol. In addition, to produce sedative and anxiolytic activities, at the receptor subtypes, florasol interacts with GABAA receptor which mediates benzodiazepine effects. By decreasing oxidative stress and cytokine production, florasol inhibits the inflammatory response.[22]

Cholesterol/lipid lowering by florasol

Triglyceride or cholesterol levels in the serum will be decreased by the active component of florasol in the formulations. Patients with surroundings associated with increased levels of cholesterol or triglycerides, such as type II diabetes and obesity, or other patients at risk of cardiovascular disease due to elevated levels of cholesterol, may be provided this care. Florasol may be given to healthy people at the same time to maintain normal serum cholesterol levels.[23] This terpene molecule is able to reduce the production of free radicals in in-vitro conditions as well, attributing the activity to its hydroxyl group. Since reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are directly linked to heart disorders. In cardiovascular diseases, endothelial abnormalities: the role of oxidant stress, antioxidant agents can be used for the treatment of the relevant oxidative pathologies by neutralizing ROS and RNS, chelating catalytic metals and acting as their scavengers.[24]

Anti-scratching behavioral effect

Florasol's anti-scratching behavioral effects seem to be in agreement with its vascular permeability-inhibitory results. This often causes a decrease in the amount of allergic cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-4, and hence the activation of NF-Kb and c-Jun (AP-1) transcription factors in histamine-treated skin tissues. According to the results, florasol activation can improve skin scratching behavior by suppressing the activity of allergic cytokines through the regulation of NF-kB as well as AP-1.[25]

Antimicrobial activity

By the microdilution process, florasol comprising antimicrobial activity was tested against eight bacterial and eight fungal strains. It has been shown to be involved to varying degrees.[26],[27],[28],[29] The effectiveness of modern heart disease remedies can be encouraged by florasol. In mice, florasol inhibits nociception by substantially decreasing the number of abdominal contortions.[30] In addition, florasol is a significant biomarker for some diseases such as Zellweger's disease, hyperpipecolic acidemia, RD, rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, chronic polyneuropathy, and associated diseases.[31] Florasol is also used in commercial applications such as fragrance industry and used in shampoos, cosmetics, household cleaners, toilet soaps, and detergents.[32],[33],[34]


  Conclusion Top


Florasol is expected to be the most abundant acyclic isoprenoid compound current in the biosphere and its degradation products have been used as biogeochemical tracers in aquatic environments.[35] The review shows that the florasol having many pharmacological activities which reduce the risk of most human diseases include cardiovascular disease, hepatorenal diseases, diabetes, cancers, and neurodegenerative disorders. Florasol has been reported that the antioxidant property of phytochemicals may be mitigated the oxidative stress in the biological system. However, from plants, various herbal medicines are being obtained directly or indirectly which are considered an essential medicine currently in use for treating successfully various human diseases. In reference to technological bases, patent present a wide range of pharmacological and commercial applications such as cosmetics, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant. Therefore, it is necessary to explore florasol molecules, which present high pharmacological potential from scientific and technological points of view, in search of transference of technologies to generate economical and industrial growth.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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